• Steliana Toma Teachers Training Department, University of Civil Engineering Bucharest


teacher, competence, occupational standard, professional standard,


Literature proposes several models of defining the teachers' professional
standards. Each model has its strengths and weaknesses. Thus, the purpose of this
paper is to identify them and to discuss which model is more accurate. To solve this
research question, a critical analysis of existing literature has been done. The
paper reviews some published teachers' standards on a widely recommended
approach called competence-based teachers' training. It involves placing teachers'
training and teachers' personal and professional development within a realschools-
life context. The key concepts utilized by all of them are standard and
competence, but they are used with a lot of meanings as are demonstrated by
relating 8 indentified Romanian models to some continuity - discontinuity elements
of the process of developing standards for the teaching career. Because of the many
theoretical and methodological problems with the existing models,
recommendations are made describing the need for more and better designed


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COSA (1999). Occupational standard, Occupation: High school teacher - high school, Field of

activity: Education, education, culture, mass media, Bucharest. COSA code: M - 86, COSA -

U.S.S.T., p. 5.

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improving the quality of teacher education, Bruxelles, 3.8.2007 COM(2007) 392 final, p.11.

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An analysis of teachers’ professional development based on the OECD’s Teaching and

Learning International Survey (TALIS) Office for Official Publications of the European Union,


European Commission, (2012). Supporting the Teaching Professions for better Learning

Outcomes, Strasbourg, 20.11.2012,SWD(2012) 374 final.

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for lifelong learning and repealing the recommendation of the European Parliament and of the

Council of 23 April 2008 on the establishment of the European Qualifications Framework for

lifelong learning (2017/C 189/03)Official Journal of the European Union, 15.06.2017.

Evans, L. (2008). Professionalism, professionality and the development of education

professionals. British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 56, no. 1, march, 2008, p. 20–38

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no.18/10.01.2011, actualized and republished 2018,,

available at 1.08.2018.

MER, Gliga, R. (coord), Paun, E., Toma, S. & alia (2002), "Professional Standards for the

Teaching Profession", Bucharest, POLSIB.

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"Continuing Training" no.1, Bucharest.

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revision of occupational standards and associated qualifications: M1, M2, M3, M1 + M2 +

M3 NAQ, Bucharest

NAQ, Rocan, D, Toma, S. & alia, (2011a),Occupational Standard: Instructor, COR -

; (2011b), Occupational Standard: Master-Instructor, COR - 334003,

NAQ, Potolea, D., Iucu, R., Toma, S., Carp, D. & alia (2012). Occupational Standard:

Gymnasium and high-school teacher, COR - 2321, 2322,

NCST-NAQ (2005). Common Frame of Reference for the Uniform Development of

Qualifications in Romania in Accordance with the Principles and Tools of the European

Qualifications Framework - Conceptual Concepts, 24 Nov 2005.

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Romania and Other States of the European Union, Comparative Analysis, Bucharest,

Atelier Publishing House, 2007, p. 34-61.

Order No. 3712/21.05.2018 on the Approval of the Methodology for the Development,

Validation, Approval and Management of Occupational Standards and the Occupational

Standard Model, Official Gazette of Romania, No.480/11.06.2018,


Potolea, D., Toma, S, Tacea, F. (2009). A Reference Framework for Designing Teaching

Career Professional Standards, unpublished, Bucharest, NCST.

Potolea, D., Toma, S. (2010). Conceptualisation of "competence" - implications for the

construction and evaluation of training programs, in 10 Years of European Development in

Adult Education - 3rd National Conference on Adult Education (coord.Sava), Publishing

House Eurostampa, Timisoara, p. 39-47.

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Professional Standards for Career Development,approved by Ministry of Education Order,

No. 4476/06. 07.2016, Annexes 1-12, 384 p., Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 30

and no. 31b/11.01.2017.

Zaharia, S.(coord), Potolea, D., Toma, S. & alia (2009). Methodology on the development of

the NQFHE, approved by the Ministry of Education and Research Order no.

/29.06.2009, Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no 545/05.08.2009.