• Jennifer Leanne Hancock Montgomery University of Toronto, Canada


teacher-directed violence, bullying, school climate, school violence,


Despite recognition that teacher-directed violence is a common phenomenon that is considered a “salient and concerning†(Wilson et al., 2011, p. 2354); it remains widely overlooked and understudied. Teacher-directed violence garners very limited attention internationally (Galand, Lecocq, & Philippot, 2007; Dzuka & Dalbert, 2007; Chen & Astor, 2008; Wilson, et al., 2011; Ozkilic & Kartal, 2012; Kauppi & Pörhölä, 2012) despite its broad impacts like those on stakeholder well-being, schools and school climate, teacher recruitment/retentions, and student academic and behavioural outcomes (Espelage, et al. 2013). This article reviews literature concerned with teacher-directed violence from 1983 through 2019. The literature derives publications from international contexts (North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia) exploring and comparing experiences of teacher-directed violence. The analysis of the studies examines teacher-directed violence from a socio-ecological model developed by McMahon et al. (2017), and results explore the implications of teacher-directed violence, perspectives on why teacher-directed violence occurs, preventative measures, as well as the identification of common types of violence teachers experience: (1) verbal behaviour, (2) non-verbal behaviours, (3) physical behaviour, (4) damage to personal property, and (5) technology related behaviours. This research has implications for researchers, teacher pre-service, professional development training, school administrators, community leaders, and policymakers.


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