• Daniela POPA Transilvania University of BraÈ™ov


parental support, parental involvement, self-esteem, self-efficacy, academic achievement


This research focus on how the high school students perceive their
families support, whether this perceived support from the mother,
father or both influence their academic performance and their level
of self-esteem and self-efficacy. There were investigated 140 high
school students from Brasov County. The study’s instruments are 3
questionnaires that measure the quality of parent-child relationship,
self-esteem and self-efficacy. The results show that self-esteem and
academic achievement are positively correlated with supportive
behaviors of mothers toward their adolescents. The student’s mothers
support their children’s educational needs in greater extent than
their fathers do. More often the students’ perception of their fathers
support and involvement is far less perceived and felt by respondents,
as against to the support perceived from their mother. A relationship
was found between students’ academic achievement at exact science
(chemistry, physics) and supportive behaviors of mothers.


Ahmed, W., Minnaert, A., van der Werf, G. et al. (2010). Perceived Social

Support and Early Adolescents’ Achievement: The Mediational Roles of

Motivational Beliefs and Emotions. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39:


Baccus, J. R., Baldwin, M. W., Packer, D. J. (2004). ‘Increasing Implicit

Self-esteem through Classical Conditioning’. American Psychological

Society, 15(7).

Baram-Tsabari, A., Yarden, A. (2009), Identifying meta-clusters of students'

interest in science and their change with age. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 46: 999–


Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Core selfâ€evaluations: A review of the

trait and its role in job satisfaction and job performance. European Journal

of Personality, 17(S1), S5-S18.

Brown, S. D., Tramayne, S., Hoxha, D., Telander, K., Fan, X., Lent, R. W.

(2008). Social cognitive predictors of college students' academic

performance and persistence: A meta-analytic path analysis. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 72, 298–308.

Chemers, M. M., Hu, L., Garcia, B. F. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and

first-year college student performance and adjustment. Journal of

Educational Psychology, 93, 55- 64. doi: 10,1037//0022-0663.93.1.55

Cheung, Cecilia Sin-Sze; Pomerantz, Eva M. (2012). Why does parents'

involvement enhance children's achievement? The role of parent-oriented

motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 820-832.

Clark, M. H., Middleton, S. C., Nguyen, D., Zwick, L. K. (2014). Mediating

relationships between academic motivation, academic integration and

academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 33, 30-38,

ISSN 1041-6080,

Dahl, T. I., Bals, M., Turi, A. L. (2005). Are students' beliefs about

knowledge and learning associated with their reported use of learning

strategies? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 257–273.

Dale, H. S., Pintrich, P. R., & Meece, J. L. (2008). Motivation in education:

theory, research and applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Peaerson

Education, cop.

De Caroli, M. E., Sagone, E. (2014). Generalized Self-efficacy and Wellbeing

in Adolescents with High vs. Low Scholastic Self-efficacy. Procedia

- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 867-874, ISSN 1877-0428,,1016/j.sbspro.2014.05.152.

Duckworth, A. L., Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in

predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science,

, 939–944

Eysenck, H. J., Eysenck, S. B. G. (1968). Manual of Eysenck Personal and

Industrial Testing Service.

Fan W., Williams C. M., Wolters C.A. (2012). Parental Involvement in

Predicting School Motivation: Similar and Differential Effects Across

Ethnic Groups. The Journal of Educational Research, 105(1), 21-35. DOI:


Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T. S.,

Johnson, D. W., Beechum, N. O. (2012). Teaching adolescents to become

learners. The role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance:

A critical literature review. Chicago: University of Chicago Consortium on

Chicago School Research.

Fortus, D. and Vedder-Weiss, D. (2014). Measuring students' continuing

motivation for science learning. J Res Sci Teach, 51: 497–522.


Galla, B. M., Wood, J. J., Tsukayama, E., Har, K., Chiu, A. W., Langer, D.

A., (2014). A longitudinal multilevel model analysis of the within-person

and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic selfefficacy

on academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 52(3),

-308, ISSN 0022-4405,,1016/j.jsp.2014.04.001.

Ghazvini, S.D., Khajehpour, M. (2011). Gender differences in factors

affecting academic performance of high school students. Procedia - Social

and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 1040-1045. ISSN 1877-0428,,1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.236.

Glynn, S. M., Brickman, P., Armstrong, N. and Taasoobshirazi, G. (2011),

Science motivation questionnaire II: Validation with science majors and

nonscience majors. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 48: 1159–1176.


Gorrese, A., Ruggieri, R. (2013). Peer attachment and self-esteem: A metaanalytic

review. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 559–568.

Herman, W. E., & Nelson, G. C. (2009). A researcher's dilemma: A

comparison of estimated versus actual college GPA. In NERA Conference

Proceedings, 12. Retrieved from

Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and

children's academic achievement pragmatics and issues. Current directions

in psychological science, 13(4), 161-164.

Hornby G., Lafaele R. (2011). Barriers to parental involvement in education:

an explanatory model, Educational Review, 63:1, 37-52. DOI:


Judge, T. A, Bono, J. E. (2003). Core Self-Evaluations: A Review of the

Trait and its Role in Job Satisfaction and Job Performance. European

Journal of Personality, 17: S5–S18 DOI: 10,1002/per.481

Katz, I., Madjar, N., Harari, A. (2014). Parental Support and Adolescent

Motivation for Dieting: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective. The

Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 0(0), 1-19, DOI:


Komarraju, M., Nadler, D. (2013). Self-efficacy and academic achievement:

Why do implicit beliefs, goals, and effort regulation matter? Learning and

Individual Differences, 25, 67-72, ISSN 1041-6080,,1016/j.lindif.2013.01.005.

Mehjabeen, K. (2013). "Academic Self-Efficacy, Coping, and Academic

Performance in College," International Journal of Undergraduate Research

and Creative Activities 5, Article 4. DOI:,7710/2168-


Nurmi, J. E. (2012). Students’ characteristics and teacher–child relationships

in instruction: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 7(3), 177-

Pajares, F., Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-beliefs and school success: Selfefficacy,

self-concept, and school achievement. In R. Riding & S. Rayner

(Eds.). Self perception (239-266). London: Ablex.

Pomerantz, E. M., Moorman, E. A., & Litwack, S. D. (2007). The how,

whom, and why of parents’ involvement in children’s academic lives:

More is not always better. Review of educational research, 77(3), 373-410.

Poropat, A. E. (2014). Other-rated personality and academic performance:

Evidence and implications. Learning and Individual Differences, 34, 24–,1016/j.lindif.2014.05.013

Richardson, M., Abraham, C., Bond, R. (2012). Psychological correlates of

university students' academic performance: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

Psychological bulletin, 138(2), 353.

Salami, S. O., Ogundokun, M. O. (2009). Emotional intelligence and selfefficacy

as predictors of academic performance. Perspectives in Education,

(3), 175-185.

Topor D. R., Keane S. P., Shelton T. L., Calkins S. D. (2010) Parent

Involvement and Student Academic Performance: A Multiple Mediational

Analysis. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 38:3,

-197. DOI: 10.1080/10852352.2010.486297

Urdan, T., Solek, M., & Schoenfelder, E. (2007). Students’ perceptions of

family influences on their academic motivation: A qualitative analysis.

European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22(1), 7-21.

Yanti, R., Hidayatulfathi, O., Ismarulyusda, I., Syarif, H. L., Nur, Z. M. S.,

Baharudin O. (2012). Self-esteem and academic performance relationship

amongst the second year undergraduate students of Universiti Kebangsaan

Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Campus. Procedia - Social and Behavioral

Sciences 60, 582 – 589.